By R. Yokian. Linfield College.
Creatinine is derived from me- gene order precose 50 mg otc diabetes test in hyderabad, responsible for most non-16p-linked polycys- tabolism of creatine in muscle proven precose 25 mg diabetes diet dessert recipes. Fifty percent loss of renal function is The disease should be considered a multisystem dis- often needed before the serum creatinine rises above ease in which cysts occur in other organs (liver precose 50 mg visa diabetes ii, pan- the normal range; it is therefore not a sensitive creas, testes). There is an increased incidence of car- indicator of mild to moderate renal injury. Kidney damage is dened as pathological abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine tests or imaging studies. Plasma uric acid is often raised (but clinical gout This is usually calculated by using a web-based cal- is rare). It is chromic normocytic anaemia which responds to par- calculated from the rate of disappearance of a bolus 51 enteral erythropoietin. Renal ultrasound identies obstruction or renal scars Hypocalcaemia stimulates the parathyroid glands and denes renal size (Table 14. Plain abdominal which are thus in a state of chronic hypersecretion, X-ray also denes the renal outline and excludes renal tending to return the serum calcium level to normal. Renal function should be mon- itored as they can cause hyperkalaemia and reduce There are two main aims: renal blood ow and precipitate acute renal failure, 1 to slow the decline in renal function; particularly in the presence of renal artery stenosis 2 to prevent or treat complications (bone disease, (p. Pathophysiology Complications Possible mechanisms of progression of renal failure include: Bone disease. Treatment is by dietary phosphate Hypertension in chronic kidney disease restriction with or without phosphate binders (calci- um carbonate or acetate, or non-calcium containing Progression of chronic kidney disease is attenuated binders such as sevelamer or lanthanum carbonate by treatment of hypertension. Thiazide diuretics, if there are concerns over calcium load), and early use b-blockers,angiotensin-convertingenzymeinhibitors of low-dose 1a-hydroxylated vitamin D derivatives. Parenteral recombinant erythropoietin increases ular hypertrophy, and possibly vascular calcication. Early complete correction of anaemia did associated with increased risk and no incremental not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. This rects anaemia and improves well-being, without af- procedure is repeated three or four times daily. The dependenthypertensionoccursin35%ofpatientsand major complication is peritonitis, usually caused by can usually be controlled with hypotensive agents, Staphylococcus epidermidis or S. Automated although hypertensive encephalopathy can develop peritoneal dialysis involves using a machine to cycle suddenly. Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice in associated with increased cardiovascular risk (Trials most patients, but is limited by supply of donor Box 14. Sexual dysfunction Assessment of dialysis adequacy Decreased libido and impotence are common. Hyper- Plasma urea and creatinine are poor predictors of prolactinaemia is present in at least one-third of outcome in dialysis patients low predialysis urea, patients, resulting in an inhibitory effect on gonado- not high, has been found to be associated with in- trophin secretion. Assessment of dialysis adequacy is now achieved by the use of kinetic measurements Renal replacement therapy often referred to as urea kinetic modelling. Two para- Renal function can be replaced in end-stage renal meters, urea clearance corrected for volume of distri- disease by the following: bution (Kt/V urea, where Kt urea clearance and V volume of distribution) and protein catabolic rate,. Diffusionof solutesoccurs between have been found in several studies to be useful pre- blood and dialysate which ow in opposite direc- dictors of outcome. The most common problems are cardiovascular instability during dialysis, and difculty establishing vascular access. Patients present with one or more features synthetic graft (usually Goretex) looping subcuta- of renal disease hypertension, haematuria, protein- neously between an artery and vein in the forearm uria, nephrotic syndrome and variousdegrees of renal or leg. The classication of glomerulonephritis is based Patients instil up to 2l of isotonic or hypertonic on histology and immunouorescence of renal tissue. Usually presents with haematuria (often provoked by Confusion arises because renal biopsy ndings do not infection). Stage I: small subepithelial electron-dense deposits Secondary causes include: (diffuse granular IgG staining). Prognosis The course of idiopathic membranous nephropathy Prognosis is highly variable. Approximately 25% of cases undergo complete spontaneous remission, 25% There is no evidence to support the use of immuno- have a partial remission with stable impaired renal suppressive therapy. Half of cases progress to esta- function, 25% have persistent nephrotic syndrome blished renal failure in 10 years. There is podocyte foot process fusion on electronmicroscopy(a relatively non-speciccon- sequence of proteinuria). Membranoproliferative Clinical features (mesangiocapillary) It accounts for over 75% of childhood and $20% of glomerulonephritis adult cases of nephrotic syndrome. Renal lesion Aetiology Focal proliferation with necrosis and epithelial cell Idiopathic focal glomerulosclerosis accounts for crescent formation. Presents with It is also associated with reux nephropathy, focal rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Prognosis There is a poor response to treatment a trial of immunosuppression is often given if there is progres- sive renal dysfunction. Renal involvement is usually seen in Wegeners granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis. Typic- Aetiology ally, there is a focal proliferative glomerulonephritis, often with necrosis and crescent formation. Renal disease 167 but may develop following transplantation of a Prognosis normal kidney into a patient with Alport syndrome. The signicance of membranous change (class V) is There is an acute renal failure caused by a rapidly unclear. Pulmonary haemor- or cyclophosphamide can slow progressive renal rhage (in smokers) causes breathlessness and hae- damage. The disease usually responds to plasma exchange (to remove the autoantibody) combined with steroids Clinical features and cytotoxic therapy (usually cyclophosphamide). Oliguria, oedema, hypertension, haematuria and Recovery of renal function is rare once anuria or renalimpairmentfollow23weeksafterinfectionwith dialysis dependence has occurred. Investigations Systemic lupus ThroatorskinculturesmayshowgroupAstreptococci erythematosus if penicillin has not been given. Urine osmolality decreased and urine sodium tissue turgor and postural hypotension. In severe decreased: depletion, mental confusion, hypotension and shock diabetes insipidus (p. Urine osmolality increased and urine sodium in- Check serum osmolality and urine sodium. Serum osmolality is decreased and urine sodium is can be given orally or as intravenous 5% dextrose. Serum potassium decreased (hypokalaemia) Management Aetiology Salt depletion is corrected with NaCl, either orally (slow sodium tablets) or as intravenous normal sa-. Renal loss: diuretic therapy (thiazides, loop diuretics) Serum sodium increased mineralocorticoid excess.
Adenoma Hepatocellular adenoma is a rare mass lesion of the liver characterized by the benign proliferation of hepatocytes cheap 50 mg precose amex diabetes symptoms underweight. Patients can present with multiple adenomas cheap precose 25 mg with visa diabetes symptoms vision, with hepatic adenomatosis being associated with glycogen storage disease precose 25mg fast delivery diabetes type 2 wound healing. Many patients are asymptomatic, but up to one quarter of patients may present with pain in the epigastrium. Although benign, it is estimated that approximately 10% of adenomas will undergo a malignant transformation, with the risk being highest for larger adenomas. Sulfur colloid studies may show the characteristic lack of uptake due to absence of Kuppfer cells in the adenoma. Each year there are more than 600,000 new cases, with more than half of them occurring in China alone. Furthermore, it has the advantage of linking these prognostic factors to recommended therapies. In carefully selected patients 5 year survival rates of 70% have been reported with all three modalities. Hepatoblastoma Primary liver tumours account for only about 1% of all childhood malignancies. Hepatoblastoma is a rare malignant tumor that develops in the liver of young children. Approximately one-third of patients will present at an early stage where surgical resection can be performed. In other patients, neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and vincristine can be followed by liver transplantation. The five-year survival rate is less than 35% but improves to approximately 70% in patients undergoing transplantation. Biopsy will reveal adenocarcinoma; however, this pathology within the liver will usually be metastatic (see below) and therefore a workup to rule out another primary malignancy is necessary. Metastatic Tumors In North America, metastases from another malignancy are the most common malignant tumor to affect the liver. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by needle biopsy, and immunohistochemical staining may help identify the likely primary malignancy. Women should undergo breast and pelvic exams, as well as mammography and pelvic First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. Endoscopy and colonoscopy should be performed to rule out gastrointestinal malignancy. For most cases, metastatic disease implies an advanced stage of cancer with a poor prognosis. Non-operative treatment options include radioactive labeled therapy with I- 111 metaiodobenzylguanidine or In-octreotide and chemotherapy. Introduction The importance of recognizing congenital hyperbilirubinemia lies mainly in distinguishing it from other, more serious hepatobiliary diseases. Except for Crigler-Najjar syndrome, congenital hyperbilirubinemias do not impair either the quality of life or the life expectancy of affected subjects. Persons with congenital (recessive) hyperbilirubinemia have normal standard liver tests (except of course for elevated serum bilirubin concentrations). The liver histology is also normal, (except for the black pigment accumulation in centrolobular hepatocytes Dubin-Johnson syndrome). With the exception of Gilberts syndrome, these syndromes are distinctly uncommon and are divided into two groups on the basis of the type of the serum hyperbilirubinemia (Table 1). Practice points: o Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in absence of hemolysis, is usually secondary to congenital defect in glucuronidation of bilirubin. Gilberts Syndrome Gilberts syndrome is the most common congenital hyperbilirubinemia syndrome. Approximately 9% of the general population in Western countries are homozygous for the variant promoter, and 30% are heterozygous. Other factors are probably involved in the clinical expression of the Gilberts phenotype since not all homozygous carriers develop hyperbilitubinemia. The syndrome manifests itself only in homozygous individuals; its inheritance is therefore consistent with an autosomal recessive trait. Gilberts syndrome is usually detected in adolescents and young adults, most commonly in males. Liver tests and hemogram (to exclude hemolysis) are normal except for unconjugated serum bilirubin which is elevated between 20 and 100 Mol/L. Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital and clofibrate can normalize plasma bilirubin concentrations within a few weeks. The long-term outcome of subjects with Gilberts syndrome is similar to that of the general population. In neonates, it may be associated with increased duration or severity of normal post-partum physiological jaundice. Diagnostic tests are usually not necessary but genetic testing is available in certain laboratories. The most important aspect is to recognize the syndrome distinguishing it from other causes of elevated unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Crigler-Najjar Syndrome The Crigler-Najjar syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Type 1 is a serious disease characterized by unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia often greater than 400-500 Mol/L. Jaundice occurs almost immediately after birth and may lead to kernicterus with consequent neurologic damage and mental retardation. Kernicterus involves damage to the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex because unconjugated bilirubin is able to penetrate the immature blood-brain barrier of infants. Nowadays, most patients treated with phototherapy and plasmapheresis survive postpuberty without significant brain damage. Subsequently, due to thickening of the skin making phototherapy less effective, patients succumb to kernicterus later in life. Type 2 syndrome is a much more benign condition in which unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia usually does not exceed 400 mol/L. If necessary, phenobarbital or clofibrate reduces bilirubin levels by at least 25% and may improve quality of life of some individuals. An important research agenda explore gene therapy for Criggler -Najjar type I syndrome. Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Two conditions characterized by congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia without cholestasis have been described, Dubin-Johnson and Rotor syndrome are inherited as autosomal recessive traits. Both are uncommon, believed to result from specific defects in the hepatobiliary excretion of bilirubin. These conditions are benign, and their accurate diagnosis provides reassurance to the patient. Plasma bilirubin may increase further in both conditions during intercurrent infection, pregnancy or use of oral contraceptives. Pruritus is absent and serum bile acid levels are normal, as are routine liver tests, except for the serum bilirubin concentration. Diagnosis is made by documenting conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (where at least 50% of the total bilirubin is the direct fraction) while other liver tests are normal.
Nevertheless precose 50 mg lowest price diabetes symptoms on feet, new discoveries about the molecular causes of diseases and the influence exerted by our genes on the effectiveness of medicines are already leading to the development of specific diagnostic techniques and better targeted treatment for individual patients generic 25mg precose free shipping diabete 2013. The changing face of Few sectors of the economy are as research-inten- biotechnology and of sive as the healthcare industry precose 25 mg low price diabetic zucchini fritters. Any findings and medical science methods discovered by universities and institutes working in the life sciences usually find their way immediately into the industrys development laboratories. Just a few ex- amples: T During the 1990s biology was defined by the fields of human genetics and genomics. By deciphering the human genome re- searchers obtained profound new insights into the hered- itary basis of the human body. From the mass of genetic in- formation now available researchers can filter out potential target molecules for new Terms biopharmaceuticals. T Since the late 1990s pro- Chimeric made up of components from two different species or individuals. The technique led to the produc- tion of the first humanised chimeric antibodies, in which variable seg- development. Because pro- ments obtained from mouse antibodies are combined with a constant teins can act either as target segment from a human antibody. Copegus (ribavirin) a Roche product used in combination with molecules or as drug mole- Pegasys for the treatment of hepatitis C. Therapeutic antibodies antibodies used as agents for the treat- and proteins have recently ment of diseases. It Therapeutic proteins proteins used as active substances in has been recognised that drugs. In addition, modifi- cations of therapeutic proteins strongly influence their effi- cacy and stability. T In recent years researchers have succeeded in shedding more light on the key functions of the immune system. These findings have led to various new diagnostic approaches and more refined methods for developing therapeutic antibodies. Research-orientated: development of therapeutic proteins Identification of The number of good molecular targets for new molecular therapeutic proteins is limited targets Assessment Pick the winners; assessment in cellular and animal of available models and new targets Design of therapeutic proteins, e. Most important Modern medical biotechnology uses a wide range drug group: therapeutic of methods to diagnose and treat diseases from proteins the biotechnological production of simple natu- ral products to gene therapy. The most important group of biotechnological drugs by far, however, are the thera- peutic proteins. Most therapeutic proteins are chemical mes- sengers, enzymes or, especially in recent times, monoclonal an- tibodies. Now these molecules can be produced in genetical- ly modified cells that carry the hereditary information for pro- ducing the human protein. Main avenues of research 41 In addition, new findings from basic research now allow thera- peutic proteins to be coupled with non-protein components to improve their efficacy and duration of action. Since the substance is produced mainly in the kidneys, patients with renal damage are prone to develop anemia. Those affected often dialysis patients generally feel weak and tired, because their red blood cells no longer carry sufficient supplies of oxygen to the body. Since the early 1990s recombinant erythropoietin has replaced time-consuming, costly and risky blood transfusions, previous- ly the standard treatment for anemic patients. Because the hor- mone is a glycoprotein (see illustration), it cannot be produced in bacterial or yeast-cell cultures: the erythropoietin molecule has several carbohydrate side chains that slow its breakdown in the body but also modify its intrinsic bioactivity. These side chains can be attached to proteins only by the synthe- Erythropoietin: the molecule sising apparatus found in carbohydrate chain mammalian cells. For this reason, only mammalian cells can be used to produce complex therapeutic pro- teins. In renal clinical trials untreated anemic patients can ex- perience a correction of their anemia with one injection twice a month. Patients who are in maintenance can be managed with a single monthly injection whether they have reached end stage renal disease (chronic kidney disease stage 5) or not (typically chronic kidney disease stages 3 and 4). Less frequent adminis- trations reduce the oscillation in hemoglobin levels outside the optimal range of hemoglobin as defined by best practice guide- lines, which is often seen with existing short-acting compounds (epoetin, darbepoetin). Such excursions are associated with ad- verse events and considered to contribute to further deterio- ration of cardiac and renal functions. It is believed that less fre- quent administrations represent a significant gain in quality of life for patients but also allow overworked nephrologists and nurses to concentrate on the other serious medical conditions affecting many of these patients such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart failure and obesity. The principle of Improved efficacy of proteins can be achieved pegylation: Pegasys with the help of specific modifications. It is essential to select the proper moiety that will confer Main avenues of research 43 to the active protein the de- A pegylated protein: Pegasys sired properties. The choice of linker is also very impor- tant as its rigidity (or lack thereof) will influence the ultimate properties of the new medicine. Roche has successfully applied this principle to develop a drug for the treatment of hepati- tis C and B. In this method the drug is enveloped in one or two highly branched molecules of polyethylene glycol. It has been used for de- cades for treating hepatitis C, a widespread infection which causes inflammation of the liver. To date no treatment exists that is able to eradicate the hepatitis C virus from the body. As a result, drug levels in the patients blood- stream undergo significant fluctuations in a two-day rhythm, giving rise to side effects and limit efficacy. It is also considered that fluctuation is instrumental promoting the appearance of resistant viruses. Thanks to a carefully selected pegylation with the appropriate bond with the protein,Pegasys is broken down much more slow- ly than simple interferon and therefore remains active in the body longer. This has several advantages for patients: Firstly, Pegasys only has to be given once weekly. Secondly, the dose does not have to be adjusted gradually at least not to the same degree according to the patients age, hepatic status and renal function, a time-consuming process. Thirdly, interferon levels in the bloodstream are subject to less fluctuation, making the side effects more tolerable and improving patient compliance. First approved in 2002, Pegasys quickly became the internation- al market leader in the hepatitis C sector. The drug was also the first pegylated therapeutic protein in the world to be approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. A new drug class: Therapeutic antibodies form a relatively new therapeutic antibodies drug class that was only made possible by modern biotechnology. These Y-shaped proteins bear on their two short arms two identical regions that recognise a specific foreign structure. The long stem of the molecule interacts with other components of the immune sys- tem, which then initiate destruction of the intruders. In 1972 Csar Milstein and Georges Khler, who later received the Nobel Prize, found a way to produce copies of identical antibody molecules in unlimited amounts. Within a few years these so-called monoclonal antibodies had revolutionised bio- logical research, allowing any desired molecule to be reliably identified and marked.
Both basal (eg discount 50 mg precose with mastercard diabetes test meters accuracy, glargine and detemir) and rapid-acting (eg precose 50mg on-line diabetes type 2 underweight, lispro purchase 25mg precose fast delivery diabetes mellitus basics ppt, aspart and glulisine) insulin analogues are prescribed widely in the management of type 1 diabetes. Rapid-acting insulin analogues in adults In comparison with regular human insulin and as part of a basal bolus regimen, short-acting insulin analogues have a small but statistically significant effect on HbA1c in people with type 1 diabetes, with a reduction of approximately 0. Some studies have reported a reduction in hypoglycaemia in association with their use, however there is considerable heterogeneity between these studies, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of insulin analogues has been associated with an improvement in treatment satisfaction scores in several, though not all, studies which used a validated assessment tool. B An intensified treatment regimen for adults with type 1 diabetes should include either regular human or rapid-acting insulin analogues. The first meta-analysis, undertaken by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, concluded that use of glargine was associated with a reduction in HbA1c of 0. Comparison of insulin detemir and insulin glargine In a 52 week study comparing insulin detemir and insulin glargine as the basal component of a basal bolus regimen in 443 patients with type 1 diabetes, there was no difference or change + 1 in HbA1c or rates of hypoglycaemia between the groups. According to the study protocol, two thirds of the detemir group completed the study on twice daily detemir. Even these few are of relatively short duration, and most involve small numbers of subjects. One systematic review identified four studies in pre-pubertal children and one study involving adolescents which showed no difference in glycaemic control (as measured by HbA1c) between 1++ the use of rapid-acting insulin analogues and regular human insulin. One study showed reduction in rates of both overall and nocturnal hypoglycaemia when using rapid-acting insulin analogues. In developed countries its usage is increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes, who are expert at carbohydrate counting or have undertaken an appropriate structured education course. Concern has been raised over the lack of independently funded studies to allow objective comparison of results. Such studies should not restrict entry on the basis of hypoglycaemia and should use a validated QoL assessment. Progress against targets should be monitored and, if appropriate, alternative treatment strategies should be offered. B Dietary advice as part of a comprehensive management plan is recommended to improve glycaemic control. No studies were identified looking at the impact of self or carer care compared to routine care on length of stay or patient satisfaction. There are several different methods of providing advice and support to those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in Scotland. Transition models have evolved according to local circumstances and beliefs 4 and their complexity makes comparison very difficult. There is little evidence available on the different adolescent transition models and their benefits and there is no evidence to recommend a particular transition model. Some common themes appear in the literature: Patients and their families favour a structured transition from paediatric to adult services together with adequate information along the way. Those adults responsible for them during school hours may not be experienced 3 in the care of children with diabetes. Complications such as hypoglycaemia and poor glycaemic control may occur during these times. The first study involved school-based consultations from the diabetes nurse, but was described as a pilot study, with no control group 2- and a self-selected intervention group. The intervention consisted of increased visits during 1- school hours to discuss diabetes and advice on dose adjustments. Intensification of diabetes management requires increased monitoring and insulin use and, as this significantly improves glycaemic control, should be available to all children while at school. Children at school should be supported with all necessary aspects of diabetes care, such as glucose monitoring, insulin injection and treatment of hypoglycaemia. Improvements in blood glucose control are associated with + 229,230 1 improvements in quality of life, providing there is no increase in hypoglycaemic symptoms. For clarity and simplicity the guideline development group suggests 12 years of age in both boys and girls. Recommendations for screening patients with type 1 diabetes for retinopathy, nephropathy and hypertension are included in sections 10. There is no evidence that routine screening for autonomic neuropathy or hyperlipidaemia are of benefit in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. C Patients with cystic fibrosis should be screened annually for diabetes from 10 years of age. C Young people with diabetes should be screened for thyroid and coeliac disease at onset of diabetes and at intervals throughout their lives. Standard blood tests exist to screen for thyroid and coeliac disease but there are limited data to support the specific frequency of screening. People with type 1 diabetes: should have the right to choose not just the insulin regimen, but whether to use an analogue (designer insulin), human or animal insulin. People with diabetes must appreciate the time action profiles of their type of insulin, have knowledge of injection sites and absorption rates of insulin. Ideally all of the above should form part of an education programme provided locally by the Diabetes Team, with the aim to empower patients to make the choice that is right for them. This will often involve the local Diabetes Team in office hours, but outwith these times arrangements vary across Scotland. Hospital admission- If you have concerns about your diabetes management as an inpatient ask the local ward staff to have the Diabetes Team review your progress. Healthcare professionals should: develop a local transition process that facilitates a seamless move to an adult service, which encourages regular attendance of teenagers. However, type 1 and 2 diabetes are high risk states for both the woman and her fetus. There are increased complications of diabetes, severe hypoglycaemia, and progression of microvascular complications. Rates of fetal and neonatal loss and major congenital malformation are increased by at least two to threefold. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in women of reproductive age and outcomes may be equivalent or worse than in those with type 1 diabetes. Management prior to and during pregnancy should follow the same intensive programme of metabolic, obstetric and neonatal supervision. National audits on management of diabetes in pregnancy indicate that adverse pregnancy outcomes remain higher in women with diabetes than in the non-diabetic population. Effective communication between all members of the team is essential, recognising that the key member is the woman with diabetes. There is little evidence on choice of contraceptive method specifically in these women. In general, the contraceptive advice for a woman with diabetes should follow that in the general population. Progestogen-only preparations, oral or intramuscular, may be suitable in these women.