By U. Larson. Webster University.
In the case of genuinely unforeseen and usually compassionate circumstances buy cheap voveran 50mg spasms post stroke, however order voveran 50 mg otc spasms calf, a request may be considered order voveran 50 mg visa muscle relaxer sleep aid. Contact hours are approximately 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday with significant at home study also required. For Years 1 and 2, you will be based at a Flinders University campus in either Adelaide or Darwin. Clinical rotations of years 3 and 4 may be undertaken at various locations primarily in South Australia or the Northern Therritory. Insert the name, address and 1I, occupation of person making the declaration make the following declaration under the Statutory Declarations Act 1959. 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Note 2 Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code applies to all offences against the Statutory Declarations Act 1959 – see Section 5A of the Statutory Declarations Act 1959. Insert the name, address and 1I, occupation of person making the declaration make the following declaration under the Statutory Declarations Act 1959. My address was/is: I understand that if I am invited to interview as part of the selection process for the course, I will be required to provide documentary evidence that confirms I meet the Northern Therritory residency requirements. I understand that Flinders University will rely on this declaration and supporting documentation when assessing applicants for entry, and agree that any false or misleading statement by me would be grounds for the University to withdraw any offer of admission and to cancel any enrolment. I understand that a person who intentionally makes a false statement in a statutory declaration is guilty of an offence under Section 11 of the Statutory Declarations Act 1959, and I believe that the statements in this declaration are true in every particular. Full name, qualification and 8 address of person before whom the declaration is made (in printed letters) Note 1 A person who intentionally makes a false statement in a statutory declaration is guilty of an offence, the punishment for which is imprisonment for a term of 4 years – see Section 11 of the Statutory Declarations Act 1959. Note 2 Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code applies to all offences against the Statutory Declarations Act 1959 – see Section 5A of the Statutory Declarations Act 1959. Applicants can use the Non-Flinders University Graduates Remoteness Area Locator to look up the name of Applicants who do not hold a Flinders University their town and find out its classification. Credit granted in a topic for work completed which is of similar content and standard as required for a passing Bachelor Degree grade in that topic. An applicant’s Grade Point Sub-quotas are entry pathways that enable applicants Average is calculated using the results from their most who meet specific entry criteria to compete for recently completed Bachelor degree. Commonwealth Supported Place Unspecified credit ‘Commonwealth Supported’ means the cost of Credit granted to the value of a specified number of study is shared between the Australian Government units for study or work experience which satisfies and the student. Domestic Applicant Domestic applicants are Australian citizens / permanent resident or New Zealand citizens. Domestic applicants are eligible for Page | 32 Page | 33 Every effort has been made to ensure the information in this Guide is accurate at the time of publication: October 18. Flinders University reserves the right to alter any information contained herein without prior notice. Introduction Ponemon Institute is pleased to present the findings of Medical Device Security: An Industry Under Attack and Unprepared to Defend, sponsored by Synopsys. The purpose of this research is to understand the risks to clinicians and patients because of insecure medical devices. To ensure a knowledgeable respondent participants in this research have a role or involvement in Figure 1. How likely is an attack on one or the assessment of and contribution to the more medical devices built or in use by your security of medical devices. Very likely and Likely responses combined In the context of this research, medical devices are any instrument, apparatus, appliance, or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. Examples range from simple devices such as medical thermometers to those that connect to the Internet to assist in the conduct of medical testing, implants, and prostheses. The following medical devices are manufactured or used by the organizations represented in this research: robots, implantable devices, radiation equipment, diagnostic & monitoring equipment, networking equipment designed specifically for medical devices and mobile medical apps. Despite the risks, few organizations are taking steps to prevent attacks on medical devices. Ponemon Institute: Private & Confidential Report 1 The research reveals the following risks to medical devices and why clinicians and patients are at risk. Both device makers and users have little confidence that patients and clinicians are protected. The use of mobile devices is affecting the security risk posture in healthcare organizations. Eighty percent of medical device manufacturers and users in this study say medical devices are very difficult to secure.
The numbers of phages required volume order 50mg voveran visa muscle relaxant withdrawal symptoms, for additional discussion of phage- to eﬀectively rescue mice from infection therapy pharmacology) buy 50mg voveran mastercard muscle relaxant spray. In order to under- depends on the ability of the phages to kill stand the pharmacology of phage therapy 50mg voveran with mastercard muscle relaxant anesthesia, we their target cells in situ: phages that are less must determine the pharmacokinetics (the eﬃcient at killing their target cells will require fate of the administered agent in vivo) and larger numbers to suﬃciently lyse host pharmacodynamics (the physiological and bacteria than would be needed when using therapeutic activity of the administered more eﬃcient phages. Dosing parameters are agent) of phage therapeutics, which, due to particularly signiﬁcant when considering both the complexity of phages and their ‘active’ versus ‘passive’ phage therapy. Active ability to self-replicate, are fundamentally phage therapy requires phage propagation in diﬀerent in phage therapy compared with situ to bring about a therapeutic eﬀect, chemotherapeutic approaches, a theme that whereas passive phage therapy uses higher has been explored at length by Curtright and doses of phages and further phage propa- Abedon (2011). It is therefore extremely gation is not required to generate therapeutic valuable to develop relevant, high-quality eﬃcacy. This is discussed further by Abedon animal disease models to study the (Chapter 17, this volume). Phage pharmacology is in its infancy but We will now brieﬂy discuss recent animal has been discussed in several studies and models of particular relevance to clinical theoretical papers (Geier et al. Perhaps most importantly, no correlation between antibiotic The ease with which blood-borne bacterial resistance and phage resistance has been infections can be induced in mouse models reported so far, suggesting that phage therapy has been exploited for many bacterial could prove especially useful in treating pathogens, and phage treatment is usually drug-resistant bacteria. Such models have especially in immunocompromised patients, been used for the treatment of bacterial represents a signiﬁcant challenge clinically infections including E. Animal models therefore are highly assess phage treatment of cholera, again with useful to ascertain such limitations, as well as apparent success (Bhowmick et al. It is the potential of phage treatment of lung important to note that prophylactic use of infections. In some cases, therefore, non- infections, and phages can then be applied by pathogenic phage hosts present in the normal any route to determine treatment or ﬂora could sustain phage numbers prior to prophylactic eﬃcacy. This model has been pathogen challenge (see Letarov, Chapter 2, used to study phage treatment of K. A similar model of healthy animals, implying that prophylaxis Burkholderia cenocepacia infection also may be less useful for this type of infection. When essentially the same administered orally following neutralization model was used for P. More work is required to ascertain the from death compared with antibiotic-treated factors involved in phage treatment success or untreated animals. Such models also interesting to note that gastric do not appear to be diﬃcult to work with, as neutralization may not always be necessary, the bacteria can be applied orally, as well as as some phages are able to survive the gastric the phage, although intragastric adminis- pH and reach the bowel in signiﬁcant Phage Therapy of Non-wound Infections 209 numbers without this step (Chibani- increased approximately 100-fold. The need to be demonstrated on a phage-by- positive results of this work were suﬃcient to phage basis. This work demon- A brief list of human uses of phage therapy is strated that even temperate phages are given in Table 14. Ultimately, phage therapy capable of mitigating bacteraemia symptoms is unlikely to be accepted in the West until it in their model, especially when the phage satisﬁes the regulatory authorities by had been evolved to perform beter in vivo by demonstrating eﬃcacy and safety in fully serial passage. While it has been suggested generally proscribed for therapy due to their that phage therapy warrants a loosening of potential to augment the pathogenicity of the regulatory standards (Verbeken et al. In addition, some large, multinational com- panies have expressed an interest in develop- Canine otitis ing and, ultimately, commercializing phage products for human use. In some cases, the While not all animal diseases are relevant to clinical research has focused on wound-care human disease, veterinary trials can still be applications, which are discussed by Loc- used to pave the way for human clinical trials Carrillo et al. Natural occur- Washington, New York-based company rences of canine otitis were used for a ﬁeld Exponential Biotherapies Inc. Some details of other human applications, research and clinical trials and other studies are given by Häusler (2006) and Abedon (2011a,b). This table, however, illustrates some of the wide range of potential applications for phage therapy. A recent report described small-scale as a commercially supplied phage cocktail production of a puriﬁed phage preparation and standard-of-care treatments (htp:// for use in an as yet unreported clinical trial to clinicaltrials. While the trial was therapy has been carried out, using a cocktail for burn patients (a wound), the techniques of phages active against several bacterial and regulatory processes are of great species, in this case of chronically infected importance in paving the way for production wounds (Rhoads et al. No adverse of phage preparations for potentially any eﬀects due to phage treatment were reported application, although more stringent afer topical administration of the cocktail requirements may be imposed for parenteral (see also Loc-Carrillo et al. A regulatory framework, it is unlikely that total of 24 patients were recruited with bespoke approaches will be acceptable, at chronic otitis of Pseudomonas aetiology. As mentioned above, it infecting bacteria were demonstrated to be has been suggested that in vitro phage susceptible to the cocktail prior to the activities may be poorly predictive of in vivo beginning of the trial. Debarbieux, assessments made on days 7, 21 and 42, Institut Pasteur, France, personal com- including microbiological analyses and munication) and some experimental work is physician and patient assessments. Both the emerging to corroborate these observations test and control groups received ear cleaning (Bull et al. If this at every visit and the results were the ﬁrst is the case, we will need superior tools to human clinical data to demonstrate to predict the pharmacodynamic properties of Western regulators that phage therapy could therapeutic phages. The applications phage application led to bacterial titres falling discussed above used multiple ways to apply below the detection limit within 7 days and phages, and phages are partitioned diﬀerently remained undetectable up to 42 days post- depending on how they are applied (McVay treatment. Debarbieux reported the eﬃcacy two whose bacterial infection had resolved, of phage treatment of P. In response to this potential need, research has been carried Additional issues out to ﬁnd mechanisms to aerosolize phages as dried particulates for inhalational delivery Should phage therapy successfully complete into the deep lung space (Golshahi et al. It is likely the gold standard method of caesium chloride that bacteria will eventually become resistant density-gradient ultracentrifugation (Biswas et to any phage preparation, as they have to al. The degree of eﬀective both geographically and temporally, puriﬁcation may depend on the route of or instead should the focus be on development administration, presumably with parenteral of bespoke approaches that tailor phages for administration requiring far more highly individuals or small groups of patients? However, within the existing Western for a given bacterial pathogen, as is currently 212 B. Otherwise, unlikely that this approach would be used for addition of new phages to a formula to all but the most extreme circumstances (see maintain eﬃcacy if bacteria become resistant Abedon, Chapter 17, this volume). As mentioned above, directed been shown to be safe for use can be modiﬁed evolution has been used successfully to alter combinatorially to expand their host range, the pharmacokinetic properties of then such requirements might be avoided. The huge global diversity Conclusions of phages, combined with phage-display technology (see Siegel, Chapter 8, this Phage therapy still has a long way to go volume) and other molecular approaches before it becomes a common or preferred raises the possibility that phages that target treatment modality for a large range of speciﬁc tissues or body compartments could bacterial diseases. Molecular techniques have Western regulatory approval, phage therapy also been used to augment phage antibioﬁlm will be used initially for refractory diseases. Ultimately, this may lead combined therapy, albeit at the cost of clinicians to prefer phages to current complicating the regulatory approval conventional treatments, even for some pathway (see also Goodridge, 2010, and Shen antibiotic-susceptible bacterial isolates (e. Advances in Applied host range of a single phage by creating a Microbiology 77, 1–40. Eliava Institute of Bacterio- work during the period from 1st January to 1st phages, Microbiology and Virology, Tbilisi, September 1929. Journal of the American dealing with reality, resistance and resistance to Medical Association 103, 1847–1853. Antimicrobial bacteriophage: its nature and its therapeutic Agents and Chemotherapy 50, 2912–2918. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae ﬁbrosis strains: ﬁrst steps towards treatment Experimentalis 32, 317–335.
Also voveran 50 mg mastercard spasms under left rib, with the support of the Cleveland art educators and Foundation buy generic voveran 50mg online muscle relaxer 75, the Clinic’s Medical Humanities programs provide opportunities for medical docents from students to work with local artists voveran 50 mg without a prescription muscle relaxant phase 2 block, academics and community leaders to construct stories of the museum 243 health and well-being in Cleveland. At Case Western Reserve University, medical students teach students may take an elective course in music therapy and the “Observe, explore research on music and medicine with music therapists from University Hospitals. For example, the Cleveland Museum of Art’s “Art to Go” program lets Case Western Reserve University medical students view objects from the museum’s collection to help improve their diagnostic skills through observation, deduction and teamwork. Great Lakes Theater and the Baldwin Wallace University’s Department of Theater and Dance have collaborated with the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals to offer educational workshops in 2012 for internal medicine residents, helping them develop better relationships with their patients and engage with diverse populations. Doctors as Artists As arts and culture activities play an increasingly signifcant role in medical education, it is not uncommon for practicing doctors to identify as artists themselves in one or both of two ways. This seems natural in light of the practice of medicine being identifed by many as both science and art,252 a practice whose “structure for analyzing medical decision making,” cannot by itself account for the “messy details, such as context, cost, convenience, and the values of the patient” in pursuing courses of action for a particular patient’s case. In the second way, some doctors view themselves literally as artists, reporting their direct engagement in artistic and creative practices for myriad purposes ranging from the examination of personal emotions that arise from their practice of medicine to the use of arts activities to Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 57 Creative Minds in Medicine Medical Training and Medical Humanities relieve stress and distract from job-related pressures. Those specializing in “performance arts medicine” focus on treating the specifc needs of actors, dancers and musicians. Locally, the Cleveland Clinic’s Medical Center for Performing Artists treats voice, hearing and neuromuscular disorders common in performing artists. In numerous ways, the skills of arts and culture are informing the practice of medicine and arts and culture organizations are increasingly serving as resources for the medical community. Cleveland has an opportunity to further promote partnerships between its arts and culture organizations and with the medical community to inform practices and encourage engagement by doctors in such activities. Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 58 Creative Minds in Medicine case study devising healthy communities Katherine Burke leading a session at Rainey Institute Photo courtesy of Katherine Burke Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 59 Creative Minds in Medicine humanizing medical training For a little while during his 2011-12 academic year, medical student Vincent Cruz stopped reading textbooks and played with clay, instead. Cruz and a classmate were fnding out how making art with clay helps brain-injured patients get better. The pair had already sat in on a number of sessions with the Art Therapy Studio’s Traumatic Brain Injury clay-studio group, observing “the amazing ability of the human brain to ‘rewire’ - how the physical act of working with clay (using hand- eye coordination and motor skills) helped promote this process,” he writes in a recent e-mail. He believes that being a doctor means more than being a fact-driven scientist; it is important for medical professionals to understand not only their patients’ humanity, but also their own. Kohn long ago recognized that the arts can be one of the keys to the personal meaning often locked away in the name of objectivity. To help data-swamped future doctors get in touch with the creative, cultural and emotional sides of human beings and recognize that those areas directly affect health, Kohn devised an arts-based qualitative-research experience for frst-year med students in collaboration with Katherine Burke, an adjunct member of Kent State University’s theater faculty. The idea is to give students opportunities to observe artists working with patients and other members of the community and see the effects of arts activity on people as well as the communities in which they live. They develop research and reporting skills in the process, write personal refections and, at program’s end, relate the story of that community-arts experience to others. It also helps students fnd their own voices, express their own feelings and share their own stories with the people around them, Burke explains: “The way in which one tells a story has a way of forming an identity” for both the storyteller and the community listening to him or her. As Cruz writes, observing the clay studio “was an important exercise to see how art in the community – much like nursing homes, outpatient offces and rehab facilities – is integral to the well-being The Medical and recovery of patients weeks/months/years after leaving the hospital, since this is often Humanities diffcult to appreciate when we are so focused on the immediate tasks of in-patient medicine. Kohn’s commitment to helping members of – mundane and medical communities express themselves profound – of their goes back to his early years at Northeast Ohio Medical University, where he founded an chosen profession. But it wasn’t until he had co-founded and begun co-directing the Center for Literature in Medicine at Northeast Ohio’s Hiram College that he had a real epiphany about arts and medicine. He had started collaborating with the then-named Great Lakes Theater Festival, working with theater artists on a narrative bioethics program and “It just opened up my world,” he said. In this way, his Medical Humanities program has sought to help students refect on their identity, their role in society and larger cultural patterns as they face the issues – mundane and profound – of their chosen profession. Kohn’s approach helps turn a young doctor like Bryan Sisk into a different type of physician: one who is not only a scientist, but a human being, as well. He found that the group writing exercises, thought-provoking speakers and the wide range of arts and media that made up his training in humanities at Lerner have given him the ability to cope better with his patients’ feelings and his own. The following best practices are important considerations when developing and implementing programs that bring together the arts and culture and the health and human services sectors: • Understanding context. Before embarking on an arts and health program, it is essential for all parties involved to develop a solid understanding of what populations will be served, what their specifc needs are and what available resources exist for implementing the program. It is essential that arts and culture practitioners recognize the unique strengths, challenges and backgrounds of each participant, as well as the resources and limitations of each healthcare setting. Funding arts and health programs can be challenging in light of lower levels of available philanthropic support, limitations on what types of activities are covered by insurance, and rising healthcare costs. The formation of strategic alliances can help broaden the base of philanthropic support, while research can provide evidence that documents the medical costs savings and other benefts associated with such interventions. In order to achieve full integration of, and participation in, arts and health activities, it is important to consider barriers to access. For example, artists who are not trained expressive arts therapists may not know how to get involved in healthcare facilities, healthcare providers might have preconceived ideas about the nature of arts and culture activities and patients may think they are not skilled enough to participate. Additionally, practical barriers may include diffculty traveling to arts and health programs, lack of funding for programs and inadequate space to carry out programs. Collaborations can yield numerous benefts such as the sharing of expertise, access to resources and greater effciency and effectiveness of service delivery. When the arts and health felds intersect, partnership offers a way to further humanize healthcare settings and empower patients to share their stories and interact with others in different ways. As with any collaboration, success is achievable only when the parties involved communicate regularly, set clear and measurable goals and delineate expectations. Populations being served should also be given opportunities to share their experiences and talk about what best meets their needs. The collection and dissemination of verifable, high-quality data are essential to bolstering the case for continued integration of the arts and culture and health and human services sectors. The most powerful accounts meld quantitative data into a patient’s personal journey. In this way, the patient’s story humanizes the numbers in data tables, while the data tables can lend verifability to the intrinsic values of arts and culture experience. Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 63 Creative Minds in Medicine • Educating the public, healthcare professionals and artists about the intersection. In order to foster and strengthen the intersection between arts and health, it is essential for arts and health stakeholders to be given opportunities to share their experiences and educate others about the different ways arts and health intersect. Since the intersection runs along a continuum that varies according to factors such as engagement, programmatic structure and goals, it is important to think about arts and health defnitions broadly to invite new avenues for participation. When introducing arts and culture into healthcare settings, strategies to ensure the maintenance of sterile environments are essential to protecting the safety of patients. For artists, gaining a shared understanding with healthcare providers during the development of arts and health projects can allow them to customize programming to meet the special needs of patients and understand how to best engage them in arts and culture activities. Conversely, for healthcare providers who are inviting artists to do work in their facilities, orientation sessions can be useful because artists’ levels of clinical experience with patients may vary. Such training can include primers on privacy requirements, workplace safety regulations, management of emotionally challenging situations and working with different populations. Recommendations for Future Policy The health and human services sector provides assistance to people from all backgrounds at some of the most defning moments of their lives.