By G. Farmon. Geneva College. 2019.

Only two of eight normothermic controls survived purchase rosuvastatin 5mg without a prescription cholesterol test kit walmart, and both had persistent neurological de¿cits purchase rosuvastatin 10mg with amex cholesterol fasting. Several mechanisms might have contributed to the ob- served improvement in myocardial performance purchase rosuvastatin 10 mg online cholesterol lowering foods new zealand. Greater postre- suscitation haemodynamic stability was also observed in cooled animals. These bene¿cial effects on easing de¿brillation and a more benign postresuscitation course were subsequently con¿rmed in animals in which the duration of untreated cardiac arrest was extended to 15 min [53]. Also unexpectedly, there was remarkably higher coronary perfusion pressure in head-cooled animals, which was consistent with greater de¿brillation success (p < 0. It is conceivable that targeted cooling of the underside of the brain using nasopharyngeal cooling alters the ¿ring rates of efferent autonomic nerves in the cer- vical chain. Inhibition of sympathetic ¿ring during systemic hypothermia has been previ- ously reported, as temperature was reduced from 38ºC to 31ºC [54]. Experimental studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that plasma noradrenaline and total peripheral resis- tances were reduced during moderately cold head immersion for 20 min [55]. Moreover, hypothermia has been reported to attenuate ischaemia-induced norepinephrine and acetyl- choline release in ischaemic regions [56]. Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is a focal point in the complex of interacting systems regulating stress response [57]. It has now become apparent that large-vessel pressure and Àow alone may not be predictive of the extent to which microvessels and therefore tissues are perfused [58–61]. Yet it is the microvessels and speci¿cally the capillaries that serve as the ultimate exchange sites for Fig. Based on the improved haemodynamics observed during nasopharyngeal cooling, we were prompted to investigate whether such increases were reÀected in improvements in microcirculation and tissue perfusion of the brain and heart. In a very preliminary study on pigs, we addressed cerebral microcirculatory Àows in relation to carotid blood Àows. Increases in carotid blood Àows were associated with con- current increases in the numbers of perfused capillaries visualised in the cerebral cortex (Fig. Cerebral and myocardial perfusion was assessed using coloured microspheres (mean diameter 10 ± 0. This study con¿rmed that intranasal cooling is feasible and safe to use during cardiac arrest. In addition, the target tympanic temperature of 34°C was achieved 3 h faster and time to target core temperature was 2 h faster in patients cooled intranasally in the ¿eld compared with those receiving in-hospital cooling alone [63]. The advantage of cooling via the nasopharyngeal method is that when the cooling power is focused on the brain – the organ most vulnerable to ischaemia–reperfusion injury – much time is saved in reaching target temperature. Selective head cooling with subsequent delayed systemic hypothermia maximises neuroprotection while minimising systemic complications. More- over, evidence suggests several new implications regarding the bene¿cial effects on cere- bral and myocardial perfusion during selective head cooling. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (2005) Part 2: Adult basic life support. Brain Resuscitation Clinical Trial I Study Group (1986) Randomized clinical study of thiopental loading in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Adrie C, Laurent I, Monchi M et al (2004) Postresuscitation disease after cardiac arrest: a sepsis-like syndrome? Safar P (1993) Cerebral resuscitation after cardiac arrest: research initiatives and future directions. Safar P (1988) Resuscitation from clinical death: pathophysiologic limits and thera- peutic potentials. Sunde K, Pytte M, Jacobsen D et al (2007) Implementation of a standardized treat- ment protocol for post resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Kim F, Olsufka M, Carlbom D et al (2005) Pilot study of rapid infusion of 2 L of 4 degrees C normal saline for induction of mild hypothermia in hospitalized, coma- tose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Safar P, Xiao F, Radovsky A et al (1996) Improved cerebral resuscitation from cardiac arrest in dogs with mild hypothermia plus blood Àow promotion. The Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest Study Group (2002) Mild therapeutic hy- pothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. Schwab S, Schwarz S, Spranger M et al (1998) Moderate hypothermia in the treat- 12 Nasopharyngeal Cooling During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 137 ment of patients with severe middle cerebral artery infarction. Ooboshi H, Ibayashi S, Takano K et al (2000) Hypothermia inhibits ischemia-in- duced efÀux of amino acids and neuronal damage in the hippocampus of aged rats. Ristagno G, Tantillo S, Sun S et al (2010) Hypothermia improves ventricular myo- cyte contractility under conditions of normal perfusion and after an interval of isch- emia. Leonov Y, Sterz F, Safar P et al (1990) Mild cerebral hypothermia during and after cardiac arrest improves neurologic outcome in dogs. Kuboyama K, Safar P, Radovsky A et al (1993) Delay in cooling negates the bene¿- cial effect of mild resuscitative cerebral hypothermia after cardiac arrest in dogs: a prospective, randomized study. Guan J, Barbut D, Wang H et al (2008) A comparison between head cooling begun during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and surface cooling after resuscitation in a pig model of cardiac arrest. Yu T, Barbut D, Ristagno G et al (2010) Survival and neurological outcomes af- ter nasopharyngeal cooling or peripheral vein cold saline infusion initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest. Sterz F, Zeiner A et al (1996) Mild resuscitative hypothermia and outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Allers M, Boris-Moller F, Lunderquist A et al (2006) A new method of selective, rapid cooling of the brain: an experiemtnal study. Wang H, Olivero W, Lanzino G et al (2004) Rapid and selective cerebral hypo- thermia achieved using a cooling helmet. Wang Y, Zhu L (2007) Targeted brain hypothermia induced by an interstitial cooling device in human neck: theoretical analyses. Mourot L, Bouhaddi M, Gandelin E et al (2008) Cardiovascular autonomic control during short-term thermoneutral and cool head-out immersion. Kawada T, Kitagawa H, Yamazaki T et al (2007) Hypothermia reduces ischemia- and stimulation-induced myocardial interstitial norepinephrine and acetylcholine releases. Pacak K (2000) Stressor-speci¿c activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adreno- cortical axis. Circulation 122(7):729–736 Amplitude Spectrum Area 13 as a Predictor of Successful Defbrillation G. During cardiac arrest, coronary blood Àow ceases, accounting for progressive and severe energy imbalance. In- tramyocardial hypercarbic acidosis is associated with depletion of high-energy phosphates and correspondingly severe global myocardial ischaemia [11, 12]. After onset of contracture, the probability of successful de¿brillation is remote. During the electrical phase, immediate de¿brillation is likely to be success- ful. In the metabolic phase, there is no likelihood of successfully restoring a perfusing rhythm [17]. More than 50% of all patients initially resuscitated from cardiac arrest subsequently die before leaving the hospital [18–20], and the majority of these deaths are due to impaired myocardial function [21]. The severity of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction is in part related to the magni- tude of the electrical energy delivered during de¿brillation [22, 23].

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Results from coagulated or “cooked” and flake off onto the ovary or various treatment regimes for cloacal papillomatosis into the abdominal cavity 10 mg rosuvastatin with amex cholesterol test kit dischem. A diet low in fat and high in fresh fruit and between follicles and the follicles may be slightly vegetables with high vitamin A or beta carotene was stalked rosuvastatin 20 mg for sale cholesterol test inaccurate. Therapy cystic hyperplasia of the oviduct can occur secondar- includes supportive care and parenteral antimicro- ily discount 20 mg rosuvastatin visa cholesterol test do it yourself. In affected6 birds, dyspnea, altered movement and diffuse disten- Eggs may contain adult ascarids that probably enter tion (ascites) of the abdomen are common. Cysts may matodes) inhabit the oviduct of Anseriformes and rupture, so palpation should proceed carefully. Heavy infections may cause soft-shelled diographs may show a diffuse soft tissue density near or shell-less eggs, resulting in salpingitis. The cloaca may become chronically impacted with an egg, re- sulting in severe cloacitis and abdominal adhe- sions. It is inter- esting to note that the cloaca prolapses normally in the Vasa Parrot during the breeding season. Pain- of feces may be produced by birds with cloacal pathology that interferes with the normal passage of excrement. Cystic Hyperplasia of the Oviduct Most reports of cystic hyperplasia of the oviduct are in budgerigars and domestic fowl. Cysts also can occur secondary to improper formation of the left oviduct (possible degeneration during embryonic development) or from adhered lips of the infundibulum. Progressive ab- dominal distention, ascites and respiratory distress are the most common clinical changes. Ab- dominal paracentesis may be attempted either for diagnosis or for relief of respiratory distress. If a rudimentary right oviduct (or ovary) exists, it may also become cystic (Color 29. Egg binding has oc- concurrent cysts, ascites and herniation are common6 curred secondary to a fully developed right oviduct in sequelae to reproductive tract neoplasias. Radiographs can be help- terectomies were performed to remove the egg-filled ful, although an enlarged ovary or oviduct creates an left oviduct and the right oviduct that contained a image similar to that seen when uncalcified eggs are walnut-sized cyst with gelatinous fluid. A confirmatory diagnosis requires exploratory laparotomy and histopathologic examination of biopsy samples. Lymphomatosis is suggested by cauliflower- Neoplasia 119 like growths of the ovary in domestic fowl. A variety In one study, neoplasia of the reproductive tract ac- of other tumor types have been reported including counted for up to 4. It is theorized that it may be the cause instead of the result of a ruptured oviduct. If present, it can inducing peritonitis but it is likely to be the yolk that occur in either a septic or non-septic form. Fre- only causes a mild histiocytic response and if free of quently, hens that have been hysterectomized behave pathogens will gradually be reabsorbed by the peri- as if they have ovulated but do not develop egg-re- toneum. Experimentally, egg yolks from other hens can be placed near the infundibulum of a Depending on the location of rents in the oviduct, laying hen and the yolk will be delivered normally. In another study, 87% of hens with acute and chronic oviduct impaction, including egg ectopic ovulation also had egg-related peritonitis binding, cystic hyperplasia, neoplasia and salpingi- (Color 29. Peritonitis appears to be de- Ectopic eggs have been reported in Passeriformes scribed most frequently in cockatiels, budgerigars, and Psittaciformes. Abdominal distension, a penguin-like stance and Presenting clinical signs include sudden death, ab- weight loss may be the only clinical changes. Free dominal swelling, respiratory distress, depression, yolk in the abdomen may be absorbed and systemic anorexia and cessation of reproduction. The hemo- antibiotics may be needed until the abdomen clears gram may show a severe inflammatory response. The condition may recur if predisposing Radiology, abdominocentesis and laparotomy are factors are still present. Septic peritonitis leading to egg material or fully formed eggs should be removed severe debilitation, sepsis and death can occur if the surgically. If the abdominal fluid is sterile tions of ectopic ovulation or a ruptured oviduct. Peri- (rules out septic peritonitis), these birds will fre- tonitis may lead to secondary infection of other ab- quently respond to therapy that includes dexametha- dominal organs, and in advanced cases, extensive sone and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Egg-related of medroxyprogesterone varies with the size of the pancreatitis may cause temporary diabetes mellitus, bird (150 g [0. Aspirin may laying activity with the administration of me- be used as an anticoagulant in cases where yolk droxyprogesterone alone and require administration emboli are suspected (1 tablet/30 cc water, 0. The etiologic agent of egg-related peritoni- Scientific investigations are necessary to determine tis is often coliforms, especially E. Changing the inflammation and supportive care (heat, fluids, nu- location of the enclosure may also be helpful. Long-term antibiotic therapy may discourage reproductive behavior by decreasing may be necessary and diet correction is advised. Most the amount of time spent with a hen until egg laying cases resolve with medical therapy alone, but early ceases. If surgery is required to re- move egg material or perform abdominal irrigation, Medical therapy is designed to correct any nutri- the patient should be stabilized first with supportive tional imbalances or reproductive tract abnormali- care and antibiotics. Mineral and vitamin supplements should be given parenterally and added to the diet. Caloric intake with adequate protein levels should be in- Chronic Egg Laying creased. Depression, Chronic egg laying occurs when a hen lays eggs polyuria, weight gain, liver damage, immunosup- beyond the normal clutch size or has repeated pression and occasionally diabetes mellitus (espe- clutches regardless of the existence of a suitable cially in cockatiels) can occur with use of me- mate or breeding season. Egg laying may be stopped from (stuffed animals, enclosure toys) or birds of another two weeks to several months following therapy and species may act as substitute mates and stimulate repeat injections are often necessary. This problem is particularly experience no problems, while others experience con- common in hand-raised hens that are imprinted on tinual or permanent side effects. The chronically reproductively active fe- drug concentrations can be prevented by implanting male may exhibit weight loss from constant regurgi- a progesterone pellet that allows for continual drug tation and feather loss or mild dermatitis around the delivery. Removing eggs from the hen effectively induces a affected hens may continue to lay eggs. The long- form of double clutching and can facilitate the prob- term solution in these cases is a salpingohysterec- lem. The most domesticated psit- tacine birds, cockatiels, lovebirds and budgerigars, Over-production are notorious chronic egg layers. Perhaps the high incidence of problems in these species indicates a Maximal safe levels of egg production and chick care lack of hormonal balance in controlling egg laying have not been determined for companion bird spe- that has occurred due to selective pressures designed cies.

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Appendix cheap rosuvastatin 10mg online foods lower bad cholesterol fast, [Excerpts from "Prescription Pain Medications: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers for Health Care Professionals"]; p order 10mg rosuvastatin free shipping cholesterol lowering foods in gujarati. Part of a paper with title containing a Greek letter or other special character 382 Citing Medicine 7 discount rosuvastatin 10mg amex cholesterol reduction medication. Part of a paper with a constructed title Location (Pagination) of the Part of the Conference Paper (required) General Rules for Location (Pagination) • Begin location with "p. When this occurs, give the total number of pages of the part you wish to cite, placed in square brackets, such as [5 p. Occasionally, a table, fgure, appendix, or another part will appear on a page that is not numbered. Figure 5, Modeling the risk of in-hospital death following lung resection; [preceding p. Part of a paper with no page number provided Examples of Citations to Parts of Conference Papers 1. Optical multi-channel monitoring of skin blood pulsations for cardiovascular assessment. In: 6th Congress on Equine Medicine and Surgery; 1999 Dec 12-14; Geneva, Switzerland. Appendix B, World Organisation for Animal Health Guidelines on antimicrobial resistance; p. Les fuctuations cycliques fondamentales des economies capitalists - le model ω [Fundamental cyclic fuctuations of capitalist economies - the ω model]. Annexe, Defnition de la transformation de Laplace (1749-1827) [Appendix, Defnition of Laplace transformation (1749-1827)]; p. In: 1986 European Meeting of the Toxicology Forum; 1986 Sep 22-26; Geneva, Switzerland. Part of a paper in a language other than English Morel E, Vialle R, Rillardon L, Guigui. Tableau 4, Comparison du groupe spondylolisthesis (n=53) au group temoin (n=300); p. Tableau 4, Comparison du groupe spondylolisthesis (n=53) au group temoin (n=300) [Table 4, Comparison of the spondylolisthesis group (n=53) with the control group (n=300)]; p. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Cardiac Arrhythmias; 2005 Oct 2-5; Venice. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Cardiac Arrhythmias; 2005 Oct 2-5; Venice. Te neuropsychiatric syndrome of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabis intoxication in naive subjects. Conference on Marihuana and Medicine; 1998 Mar 20-21; New York University School of Medicine, New York. Te neuropsychiatric syndrome of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabis intoxication in naive subjects. Conference on 386 Citing Medicine Marihuana and Medicine; 1998 Mar 20-21; New York University School of Medicine, New York. In: Pharming the genome: implications of pharmacogenomics for human health and public policy [Internet]. Proceedings of the European Atrial Fibrillation Consensus Conference; 2001 Sep 16; Bologna, Italy. In: 1986 European Meeting of the Toxicology Forum; 1986 Sep 22-26; Geneva, Switzerland. Scientific and Technical Reports Created: October 10, 2007; Updated: August 11, 2015. Entire Reports • Sample Citation and Introduction • Citation Rules with Examples • Examples B. Parts of Reports • Sample Citation and Introduction • Citation Rules with Examples • Examples A. Governmental agencies, usually at the federal or state level, issue most technical reports, but reports also originate from universities and other types of research institutions. Technical reports share many characteristics with the books described in Chapter 2 and its subsections. Te major diferences in citing them are in their authorship, the provision of sponsorship information, and the inclusion of any report, contract, and grant numbers. In citing a technical report, it is important to identify both the sponsoring organization (i. 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Author/Editor (R) | Author Afliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and Other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Report Number (R) | Contract Number or Grant Number (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author/Editor for Reports (required) General Rules for Author/Editor • List names in the order they appear in the text • Enter surname (family or last name) frst for each author/editor • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). 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There is no production of crop milk in passerines as there is in pigeons cheap rosuvastatin 10 mg on-line good cholesterol chart levels, but some finches will regurgitate crop contents to feed their young rosuvastatin 5 mg for sale cholesterol test in hyderabad. If bilateral oculonasal discharge suggestive of sinusitis is occurring generic 5mg rosuvastatin mastercard cholesterol khan academy, it is wise to collect samples from both the right and left probably did not receive yolk-derived antibodies sinuses for culture and cytologic evaluation. Conjunctivitis in this against microorganisms from their foster parents’ canary was responsive to tylosin therapy (courtesy of Michael Murray). Composition Species Emberizidae New World 550 Cup-shaped open nest, female incubates, Like psittacine birds but unlike rat- finches, cardinals, diverse group, 9 primary feathers ites and penguins, passerine birds buntings, Cuban finch have a highly developed neopul- Estrildidae African, Asian 125 Palatal markings in young, monogamous, monic and paleopulmonic parabron- and Australian dome-shaped nest with side entrance, 10 chi. This allows for highly efficient finches, waxbills, primary feathers oxygen exchange. In most passer- nunias, parrot finches ines, the cranial thoracic air sacs are Fringillidae True finches, 125 Cup-shaped open nest, female incubates, 9 fused to the single median clavicular canaries, primary feathers, 12 long tail feathers sac, making a total of seven air sacs goldfinch, as opposed to the nine air sacs of chaffinch psittacine species. Passeridae Sparrows, finches 32 Bulky domed nest of dried grass, breed in colonies, seed-eating, finch-like birds Ploceidae Weavers, 145 Dome-shaped, covered, woven nest, do not Reproductive System whydahs, queleas sing, some species parasitic Sturnidae Starlings, mynahs 108 Dark, iridescent, or brightly colored, In general, only the left ovary and colonial, nest in holes, long straight bills, oviduct develop in normal female mimicry ability passerines. Both testicles de- velop in males and during the breed- ing season these may reach enor- mous proportions in relation to the size of the bird. These physiologically enlarged testicles should not be mis- taken for pathologic conditions. Role of Light in Reproduction Temperate-evolved species (includ- ing canaries) are usually dependent on daylight intervals for reproduc- tive performance. The precise light interval varies among species but the physi- ologic control mechanism appears to be similar. Roller canaries are specifically bred light coincides with the period of sensitivity, luteiniz- and trained for their singing ability. If light coin- oped in some passerines, notably mynahs, starlings cides with the insensitive phase of the rhythm there and corvids (Figure 43. Gonadotrophin release in turn, trig- ines, lyrebirds are legendary in their ability to mimic gers the release of sex hormones. In males, the release of testosterone may occur White-crowned Sparrows, for example, this occurs in less than 24 hours following exposure to appropri- after 50 days of long daylight hour exposure. This in turn can result ing the molt and period of decreasing daylight hours in rapid development of secondary sexual charac- (fall), the breeding season starts again with the increas- teristics and breeding display (territorial calling, tes- ing daylight hours in the late winter and early spring. Following the molt and several months of recondi- tioning, the process starts over (in the United States, Courtship behavior is the culmination phase of the this occurs in December with January breeding). Response of females to increased photoperiod is less dramatic, and it may require the Testosterone-induced Singing presence of a male in breeding condition to trigger Male canaries will usually sing best in the spring in appropriate nesting and egg laying responses. In con- accounts for the common aviculture practice of sepa- trast, some canaries (even some females) sing year rating males and females during the non-breeding round and birds that stop singing because of illness season. Injectable testosterone has been sug- Many aviculturists use a “breeder” cage with a re- gested as a method of inducing singing in birds that movable partition that allows the male to feed the have stopped after a period of illness. At various intervals, the tice that should be discouraged because the testoster- partition separating the two sexes is removed, and if one has a negative feedback that causes shrinking of the female “accepts” the male, they are left together. The nest is put in the male’s side of the cage along with a source of nest material, which he collects in the nest as part of the courtship activity. An experi- enced canary breeder can remove the partition at precisely the right time for the female to accept the Avicultural Considerations male. This photoresponsive mechanism is very sensitive, and some species of birds indigenous to high lati- Husbandry tudes commence breeding at almost the same week from one year to the next. The fact that many Psit- Dietary and husbandry requirements for passerines taciformes hens produce eggs within a one- to two- are diverse. There are primarily seed-eating species day period on an annual basis suggests a similar, well such as the canary and Bengalese Finches that have defined control system of the reproductive cycle. This been domesticated for centuries, are easy to care for is obviously an advantage where suitable conditions and breed well in captivity. Many varieties of these for raising chicks are restricted to a very limited domesticated species bear little resemblance to their season. Java Finches, Zebra Finches mimic appropriate daylight patterns in order to and Gouldian Finches have somewhat shorter histo- stimulate breeding. Appropriate daylight-hour pat- ries of domestication but are also bred intensively in terns will vary from species to species. Longer Many Passeriformes are critically endangered be- light periods may cause a shorter breeding period cause of habitat destruction and human interference. Indoor, temperature-con- trolled rooms may be necessary to raise finches in Eggs Per Incubation harsher climates or when artificial lighting control is Fledging Clutch (days) necessary to increase production. Australian Grass Finches 4-8 12-17 21-25 Birds of paradise 1-2 17-21 17-30 Planted aviaries are popular for passerines because Bowerbirds 1-2 19-24 18-21 these birds cause less damage to vegetation than Bulbuls 2-5 12-14 14-18 psittacines and the vegetation provides observers a Canaries and Frigillid 3-5 12-14 11-17 more natural view of a bird’s behavior. Cardinals 2-5 11-14 9-15 Crows and jays 2-8 16-22 20-45 Some passerine birds require special materials for Java Finch 4-8 14-14 26-28 nesting or to stimulate display behavior. Care must be taken that the type of objects provided for these Sparrows and weavers 2-5 13-14 21-24 birds are safe. Any contact with fine synthetic fibers Starlings and mynahs 2-7 11-18 18-30 should be avoided because these may become entan- gled around the birds’ feet, toes or other body areas cies and pressuring local, national and international and cause damage, loss of limb or death. Burlap leaders to preserve all remaining natural habitat, (hessian) cut into small squares, torn strips of facial the aviculturist and avian veterinarian can have a tissue or coconut fiber make suitable, safe nesting dramatic impact on the health of the planet. At one time in Australia, blue Housing plastic rings were used to seal milk bottle tops, and Aviaries for Passeriformes should provide adequate free-ranging bowerbirds would selectively collect protection from the elements, with tropical species these rings from rubbish dumps and elsewhere to requiring the greatest degree of protection. The rings would occasionally climates, hardy species of Passeriformes do well in slip over the bowerbird’s neck with fatal results. Disease Control Disease control in planted aviaries can be challenging because of the dif- ficulties involved in controlling mi- croorganisms and in medicating in- dividual birds. Because it is difficult to eliminate infectious agents once they are introduced into a planted aviary, it is critical that any new birds be quarantined, tested and treated for parasites and infectious diseases prior to introduction. Free-ranging birds should be ex- cluded from aviaries to prevent the transmission of microorganisms. Sparrows, for example, may trans- mit poxvirus, Plasmodium, feather lice, mites and Haemoproteus to ca- naries. Synthetic fibers (par- ticularly yarn) may wrap around a digit, leg or wing causing avascular necrosis distal to the constriction. In some cases, the fibers are grossly visible, while in others, magnification is neces- sary to see and remove the constricting fibers. A 26 or 30 ga needle makes an excellent cutting tool for removing small fibers under magnification (courtesy of Michael Murray). The bird was maintained on an Passeriformes may be granivorous, nectivorous, fruc- all-seed diet in a small enclosure and had no exposure to water for bathing or sunlight. Note the generalized edema, hyperkeratosis, tivorous, insectivorous, omnivorous or carnivorous. Some free-ranging Feather color is dietary-dependent in species with species have specific dietary preferences (Gouldian carotenoid pigmentation. Red factor and new color Finches prefer sorghum) but may adapt to diets pro- canaries have genotypes that require exogenous vided in captivity.