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Analysis of secondary outcomes Secondary outcomes were compared between groups based on the observed data only discount cephalexin 250mg without a prescription antibiotic ear drops. Most of the secondary outcomes were of a continuous nature and so comparative analyses followed the approach detailed above for the primary outcome buy generic cephalexin 500 mg online virus 50 nm microscope, using random-effects linear regression modelling purchase cephalexin 250mg without prescription antibiotic interactions, allowing for the clustered nature of the data and including the stratification factors, baseline value of the variable under consideration and gender and cohort. Binary outcomes (such as the proportion of children classified as obese at 24 months) were analysed using binary logistic regression, allowing for the clustered nature of the data and including the stratification factors, baseline BMI SDS and cohort. For all models, corresponding distributional assumptions were investigated, as outlined below. Checking distributional and modelling assumptions Initial frequency and normal probability plots helped to inform the selection of models fitted to each outcome and whether transformation or model-based transformation under a generalised linear model might be necessary. When outcomes were discrete, sparse categories were amalgamated to create new levels with a sufficient number of participants in each for subsequent modelling as ordinal outcomes. The tenability of assumptions for modelling outcomes as normally distributed variables was inspected through frequency and normal probability plots of the residuals from the fitted models, as well as box 20 NIHR Journals Library www. Model fit was judged through inspection of these plots along with plots of the observations against the fitted values. The distribution of the random school effect was checked by way of a normal probability plot of the best linear unbiased predictors from each model. Either the applied model was revised or a different model was sought if there were any marked deviations from the assumptions. Model stability and influence of the most extreme values were diagnosed through plotting the dfbetas calculated for each modelled factor and covariate, with careful attention paid to those for the allocated group. Any observations identified with sufficient influence to change the significance of the intervention effect would prompt further investigation, with results presented both with and without any such data points. When the outcomes were deemed ordinal and fitted with an ordinal mixed-effects model, the assumption of proportional odds was tested through application of the generalised ordinal model (clustered on schools) to the data, using the gologit2 package in Stata (version 14, StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA). Any significant changes in the coefficients across the levels of the outcome would be identified from significance testing of the Peterson–Harrell parameters. Substantially more children were recruited than the target, given the higher than expected number of recruited schools with more than one Year 5 class: 1371 children were eligible for recruitment, compared with a pre-estimated target of around 950. Various trial processes were put in place to minimise missing data. For example, missing data items, such as age and sex, were queried at the time of data entry and up to three visits were made to the school to take measurements for children who were absent on the first measurement day. For the FIQ, when participants were missing a subset of the items, the total score was extrapolated based on the average scores across the four categories (energy-dense snacks, healthy snack foods, negative food markers and positive food markers). To be included in the physical activity analysis, children needed to comply with the required minimum wear time of ≥ 10 hours per day for at least 3 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Non-wear was determined as outlined previously in Study design, Outcome measures, Accelerometer measurements. Any time window with > 50% non-wear was treated as missing. Missing some but not all of the anthropometric measures could occur if a child did not give their assent/ consent for a particular measure (e. Therefore, the numbers of children with valid data for each of the baseline measurements varied. We explored whether or not the missing data for a particular measure were similar in the two allocated groups. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 21 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. TRIAL DESIGN AND METHODS Analysis populations and missing data Full intention-to-treat analysis (i. It was expected from the outset that a small proportion of children would be lost to follow-up by 24 months. As has been previously noted,49 all statistical methods for handling missing data, including complete-case analysis (i. During the development of the analysis plan, the Trial Management Group considered that the missing at random assumption, necessary for many of the common statistical methods for handling missing data, would be plausible: randomisation was at the school level, opt-out consent was used before baseline measures were collected and it was felt highly unlikely that the delivery of the intervention, or lack of the intervention programme in the control schools, would affect the likelihood of children being absent on days when study data were being collected. Within Devon, it is also known that movement between schools is relatively low. There was, therefore, no strong a priori reason to assume that children who were lost to follow-up would be missing not at random. For the primary analysis, no imputation of missing anthropometric data was undertaken and the primary outcome analysis was based on the complete-case/observed outcomes data set49 (i. Given the assumption that any missing primary outcome measures at 24 months would be missing at random, a sensitivity analysis of the primary outcome measure was planned, with missing BMI SDS at 24 months to be imputed using multiple imputation and the analysis re-run on the imputed data set. However, as outlined above in Statistical analysis, Secondary analyses of the primary outcome, this sensitivity analysis was subsequently replaced by best-case/worst-case sensitivity analyses. Derived outcome variables l Body mass index for each child was calculated from height and weight (i. The BMI was then standardised by age and gender to obtain the BMI SDS (sometimes known as BMI z-scores); we used the British 1990 (UK90) growth reference charts, and we implemented the calculations using the package LMSgrowth, developed by Cole. The weight status categories are defined using the following UK 1990 population cut-off points: underweight, ≤ 2nd centile; healthy weight, > 2nd to < 85th centile; overweight, ≥ 85th centile; and obese, ≥ 95th centile. This outcome was added following the first HeLP TSC meeting (November 2012). From the FIQ data, the mean number of energy-dense snacks, healthy snacks, negative food markers and positive food markers for weekday and weekend was calculated, for baseline and 18 months. The target of recruiting 32 schools, to ensure that a minimum of 28 schools completed the trial, was met, with all 32 completing the trial. The number of children in each school was greater than we had anticipated before the recruitment of schools started (the prior assumption was a mean of 35 Year 5 children per school). Therefore, the total number of eligible children was greater than expected. All 1371 children in the 32 participating schools were eligible for the trial: 34 were opted out by their parent/carer and 13 left the school before baseline data collection (and randomisation). All of the remaining 1324 children, irrespective of whether or not they had (all) measurements collected, were included in the trial, and so the minimum requirement of 952 children recruited was far exceeded. Up to four visits were made to each school in an attempt to obtain measures for children who had been absent on the original day of data collection, with only a small number of children absent at all subsequent visits. As described in Chapter 2, one class per school was randomly sampled to complete the physical activity data collection. At 24 months, there was a slightly greater loss to follow-up of children in the intervention group than in the control group (6. The number of children included in the primary analysis of BMI SDS at 24 months was 1244, 63% greater than the required 762 children from the a priori sample size calculation. Two schools that had been allocated to cohort 2 withdrew while they were waiting to commence the trial and so these were subsequently replaced with two of the four schools on the waiting list before cohort 2 commenced. All schools that started the trial remained in it, and so all of the randomised clusters are present at baseline and at each follow-up point. The percentage given in brackets for the proportion of children with data at both baseline and follow-up is calculated from the total number of recruited children in the schools at baseline.
This situation contrasts with the emergence purchase 750 mg cephalexin free shipping infection heart rate, millary neurons are characterized by few thick primary den- in the 1990s cheap cephalexin 250mg otc antibacterial essential oils, of detailed knowledge of the system that re- drites order cephalexin 750 mg on line antibiotics for uti sulfamethoxazole, with overlapping trees, displaying few axodendritic vealed that it shares many biological and functional proper- synaptic contacts. Another characteristic feature is the close ties with other aminergic systems overexploited in CNS contact of dendrites with glial elements in a way suggesting drug design. Neurons expressing mRNAs limit the length of the present chapter, we have deliberately for histidine decarboxylase (EC 4. Tubero- mammillary neurons possess the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (10), which accounts for the histamine-releas- ORGANIZATION OF THE HISTAMINERGIC ing effect of reserpine (2). NEURONAL SYSTEM The histaminergic neurons are characterized by the pres- ence of an unusually large variety of markers for other neu- One decade after the first evidence by Garbarg et al. Tuberomammillary neurons also contain monoamine oxidase B, an enzyme responsible for deamination of tele- methylhistamine, a major histamine metabolite in brain. Other major areas of termination of these long ascending connections are the olfactory bulb, the hip- pocampus, the caudate putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the globus pallidus, and the amygdaloid complex. Many hypothalamic nuclei exhibit a very dense innervation, for example, the suprachiasmatic, supraoptic, arcuate, and ven- tromedial nuclei. A Finally, a long descending histaminergic subsystem also arises from the tuberomammillary nucleus to project to var- ious mesencephalic and brainstem structures such as the cranial nerve nuclei (e. Several anterograde and retrograde tracing studies estab- lished the existence of afferent connections to the histamin- ergic perikarya, namely, from the infralimbic cortex, the septum-diagonal band complex, the preoptic region, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampal area (subiculum) (7, B 11). Sleep-active GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral FIGURE 14. Localization of histaminergic perikarya (closed cir- preoptic nucleus provide a major input to the tuberomam- cles) in tuberomammillary nucleus and disposition of main hista- millary nucleus (12,13). Histaminergic neurons also receive minergic pathways (arrows) in rat brain. A: Frontal section of the very dense orexin innervation originating from the lateral caudal hypothalamus. Electrophysiologic studies provided evi- rior hypothalamic area;Arc, arcuate nucleus;cc, corpus callosum; Cer, cerebellum;CG, central gray;CX, cerebral cortex;DR, dorsal dence of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic control of tuber- raphe nucleus;f, fornix;Hip, hippocampus;LS, lateral septum; omammillary neuron activity by afferents from the diagonal MD, mediodorsal thalamus;MMn, medial mammillary nucleus band of Broca, the lateral preoptic area and the anterior median part;OB, olfactory bulb;Pn, pontine nuclei;Sol, nucleus of solitary tract;Sox, supraoptic decussation;sum, supramammil- lateral hypothalamic area (15). Projections from the brain- lary nucleus;TMdiff, tuberomammillary nucleus diffuse part; stem to the tuberomammillary nucleus have also been dem- TMVr, ventral tuberomamillary subgroup rostral part;VDB, nu- onstrated. Retrograde tracing studies combined with immu- cleus of vertical limb of diagonal band;VMH, ventromedial hypo- thalamic nucleus. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY AND Like other monoaminergic neurons, histaminergic neu- LOCALIZATION OF HISTAMINE RECEPTOR rons constitute long and highly divergent systems projecting SUBTYPES in a diffuse manner to many cerebral areas (Fig. Im- munoreactive, mostly unmyelinated, varicose or nonvari- Three histamine receptor subtypes (H1,H2 and H3) have cose fibers are detected in almost all cerebral regions, partic- been defined by means of functional assays, followed by ularly limbic structures, and it was confirmed that design of selective agonists and antagonists and, more re- individual neurons project to widely divergent areas. All three belong to the superfamily of receptors with seven transmembrane do- structural studies suggest that these fibers make few typical mains (TMs) and coupled to guanylnucleotide-sensitive G synaptic contacts (6). In addition, histamine affects the Fibers arising from the tuberomammillary nucleus con- glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (17, stitute two ascending pathways: one laterally, through the 18). These two pathways combine in the diagonal band of Broca HistamineH1 Receptor to project, mainly in an ipsilateral fashion, to many telence- phalic areas, for example, in all areas and layers of the cere- The H1 receptor was initially defined in functional assays bral cortex, the most abundant projections being to the (e. PROPERTIES OF THREE HISTAMINE RECEPTOR SUBTYPES H1 H2 H3 Coding sequence 491 a. Amino acid sequence homology between Biochemical and localization studies of the H1 receptor were the TMs of the H1 and those of the muscarinic receptors made feasible with the design of reversible and irreversible (approximately 45%) is higher than between those of H1 radiolabeled probes such as [3H] mepyramine, [125I]iodo- and H receptors (approximately 40%). H -receptor antag- 2 1 bolpyramine, and [125I]iodoazidophenpyramine (19,20). The structure of the human gene was accumulation in whole cells and arachidonic acid release disclosed (23). The latter was based on the detection of a Ca2 - When stably expressed in transfected fibroblasts, the dependent Cl influx into microinjected Xenopus oocytes. H1 Starting from the bovine sequence, the H1 receptor DNA receptor stimulation potentiates cAMP accumulation in- was also cloned in the guinea pig (22), a species in which duced by forskolin in the same transfected fibroblasts, a the pharmacology of the receptor is better established, as response that resembles the H1 potentiation of histamine well as from several other species including humans (1). H2- or adenosine A2-receptor–induced accumulation of Although marked species differences in H1-receptor phar- cAMP in brain slices. All these responses mediated by a macology had been reported (2), the sequence homology single H1 receptor were known to occur in distinct cell lines between the putative TMs of the proteins is high (90%). Several H1-receptor antagonists behaved as inverse ductance, presumably by cAMP production (26). A reduction of a background leakage K lasting effects, histamine also induces very long-lasting in- current was implicated in these responses, in cortical, stria- creases in excitability in the CA1 region of the hippocampus tal, and lateral geniculate relay neurons (27,28). This tablished autoradiographically using [3H]mepyramine or process is modulated by other receptors such as the H re- 1 the more sensitive probe [125I]iodobolpyramine (20), and ceptor (35). For instance, the high density of H1 the brain is zolantidine, a compound used sometimes in receptors in the molecular layers of cerebellum and hippo- animal behavioral studies but not introduced in therapeutics campus seems to correspond to dendrites of Purkinje and (36). However, some tricyclic antidepressants are known pyramidal cells, respectively, in which the mRNA is highly to block H2-receptor–linked adenylyl cyclase potently and expressed. H receptors are also abundant in guinea pig interact with [125I]iodoaminopotentidine binding in a com- 1 thalamus, hypothalamic nuclei (e. The H2 receptor is found in most areas visualized in the primate and human brain in vivo by posi- of the cerebral cortex, with the highest density in the superfi- tron emission tomography using [11C]mepyramine (30). The caudate putamen, the volved in wakefulness and cognition, and including those ventral striatal complex, and the amygdaloid nuclei (bed mediating excitation of thalamic relay neurons (31), neo- nucleus of the stria terminalis) are among the richest brain cortical pyramidal neurons (28) and ascending cholinergic areas. The partial overlap with the H1 receptor may ac- largely unknown for a long time. Reversible labeling of the 3 count for their synergistic interaction in cAMP accumula- H2 receptor was achieved using [ H]tiotidine or, more relia- 125 tion. By screening cDNA or genomic libraries with homolo- gous probes, the intronless gene encoding the H2 receptor HistamineH3 Receptor was first identified in dogs (34) and, subsequently, in other species including humans (1). The H2 receptor is organized The H3 receptor was initially detected as an autoreceptor like other receptors positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase: controlling histamine synthesis and release in brain. There- it displays a short third intracellular loop and a long C- after, it was shown to inhibit presynaptically the release of terminal cytoplasmic tail. Hence H receptor mine (2), then [3H]N -methylhistamine, a less selective ag- 2 stimulation can trigger intracellular signals either opposite onist, was also proposed (19), as well as, more recently, or similar to those evoked by H receptor stimulation. Paral- [125I]iodophenpropit and [125I]iodoproxyfan, two antago- 1 lel observations were made for a variety of biological re- nists (41). The regulation of agonist binding by guanylnucleotides Helmut Haas and colleagues showed that, in hippocam- (39), and the sensitivity of several H3-receptor–mediated Chapter 14: Histamine 183 responses to pertussis toxin (42,43), suggested that the H3 Interaction with NMDA Receptors receptor was G /Gi o protein coupled, a suggestion confirmed Histamine potentiates NMDA-evoked currents in acutely by the cloning of the corresponding human (44) and rodent dissociated and cultured hippocampal and cortical neurons, (45) cDNAs. The H3 receptor gene contains two introns an effect that could not be ascribed to activation of the in its coding sequence and several splice variants H3L and known histamine receptors (17,18), but rather of a novel H3S differing by a stretch of 30 amino acids in the third recognition site on NMDA receptors containing the sub- intracellular loop, were identified (45). It facilitates the NMDA-induced Significant differences in the pharmacology of the depolarization of projection neurons in cortical slices (54) human and rodent H3 receptor (47) could be assigned to and phase shifts the circadian clock by a direct potentiation differences in only two amino acid residues in the third TM of NMDA currents in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (55). In various cell lines, stimulation of the H3 receptor, Histamine, presumably acting through NMDA receptors, like that of other G -protein–coupledi receptors, inhibits facilitates the induction of long-term potentiation and adenylate cyclase (44) or phospholipase C (42) and activates causes long-lasting increases of excitability in the CA1 re- phospholipase A2 (48a).
Some cultures have clear rules for the behaviour and dress of the bereaved order cephalexin 250mg line infection worse than mrsa, and even the precise length of time for the grieving/mourning process cheap cephalexin 250 mg with mastercard bacteria urine hpf. The details may vary depending on the nature of the relationship (universally 750 mg cephalexin visa antimicrobial underpants, spouses grieve longer than siblings). There are advantages to having culturally approved grieving protocols. The bereaved individual, who is distressed and finds making decisions difficult, has a clear script/ritual to follow. Adhering to the ritual ensures that no one is offended during this time of emotional arousal. Also, once all steps/obligations have been fulfilled there is an Pridmore S. Last modified: November, 2017 3 official end point to the grieving, and the bereaved person is allowed/expected to return to their usual life. A structured grieving process (uncommon in Western cultures) reduces the likelihood of “delayed” or “pathological” grief. DSM-5 advises that grief may lead into major depressive disorder, the clinician needs to be alert to this possibility and offer treatment for unnecessary/additional suffering. The grief reaction is considered to have become “pathological” when it persists longer than usual or has unusual features (Nakamura, 1999). There is concern when the grief is not abating some months after the death. It is generally believed (in the West) the grieving process, in the case of a spouse, takes 6 to 12 months. Grief and pathological grief are yet to be clearly differentiated. For example, what does “recovery” mean following the loss of a spouse of 50 years? The bereaved individual who has not eaten or slept and is inconsolable one week after the event is probably suffering excessively. While a sense of guilt at having survived is not uncommon, any delusions of guilt should be regarded at pathological. The loss of a spouse may lead to suicide – is this pathological grief? Demoralization Demoralization has been described as being distinct from major mental disorder (Clarke & Kissane, 2002). An English dictionary definition of demoralize: “to deprive a person of spirit, courage or discipline; to reduce to a state of weakness or disorder”. Demoralization has been most commonly discussed as a consequence of unremitting, unavoidable stress. It has most often been described in the context of chronic physical or psychiatric disorders, but is reported in a range of adverse situations (Gutkovich et al, 1999). Last modified: November, 2017 4 Animal studies yield the notion of “learned helplessness” (Seligman, 1975). If an animal is subjected to inescapable stress (an electrified cage floor), it eventually stops trying to escape and “gives up” (quivering and inactive). Learned helplessness is a better model for demoralization than depression. Frank (1974) observed that demoralization “results from persistent failure to cope with internally or externally induced stresses that the person and those close to him expect him to handle”. The features include feelings of “impotence, isolation, and despair”, damaged self-esteem, and a sense of “alienation” or “meaninglessness of life”. Slavney (1999) stated that in demoralization, “the mood is sad, apprehensive or irritable; thinking is pessimistic and sometimes suicidal; behaviour can be passive, demanding, or uncooperative; and sleep and appetite are often disturbed”. Clark et al (2000) studied hospitalized medically ill patients and found the concepts of demoralization, grief and anhedonia (the inability to experience pleasure, a central feature of depressive disorders) to be separate dimensions. Patfield (2000) argued that suicidal behaviour is related to a sense of helplessness and alienation rather than a direct consequence of depressed mood. Butterworth et al (2006) more recently confirmed an association between demoralization and suicidal behaviour. They were able to categorize a large proportion of people as manifesting, 1) depression and no demoralization, 2) demoralization and no depression, and 3) with both. Commonly used psychological instruments do not allow the differentiation of demoralization from depression (Loxton et al, 2006). Current evidence suggests that demoralization is a separate entity from depression. Of course, the adversity which triggers demoralization may also trigger depression, and demoralization may be a risk factor for depression. The appeal of the concept of demoralization is that as the condition arises out of adversity and the perception of the individual that he/she is powerless to influence his/her situation, effective management programs should be possible, using established psychotherapy principles (Clarke & Kissane, 2002; de Figueiredo & Gostoli, 2013). Depression In this section, those psychiatric disorders will be outlined in which the mood is changed to sad or low. It is most important to be aware that in these disorders, mood change is not the only symptom; others include vegetative symptoms such as sleep and appetite change. Thus, these disorders are diagnosed using batches or patterns of symptoms (not simply low mood alone). Last modified: November, 2017 5 The main disorders include major depressive disorder (also termed unipolar depression – such patients do not experience excessive mood elevation), persistent depressive disorder (which is similar to, but the symptoms are not as severe major depressive disorder, and bipolar depression (this is the depressive phase or a disorder which also has pathological mood elevation). DSM-5 has included “Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder” within the depression group of disorders. This inclusion will not be universally supported (Weisz and Knaapen, 2009). Major depressive episode A major depressive episode is a batch of symptoms, and is similar for major depressive disorder and bipolar depression (which can only be diagnosed when a manic episode has occurred). Criteria for major depressive episode: At least one of the following for at least 2 weeks: • persistent depressed mood • loss of interest and pleasure. At least four of the following for at least 2 weeks: • significant weight loss or gain • insomnia or increased sleep • agitation (worrying and physical restlessness) or retardation (slowed thinking and moving) • fatigue or loss of energy • feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt • diminished ability to concentrate or indecisiveness • thoughts of death or suicide. This was written by a 65-year-old female with severe depression. Depressed people do not write a lot of notes, they usually lack energy and initiative, but this person was agitated and restless. This is a rare example of someone expressing unjustified guilt feelings (as a result of depression). She is self critical, stating that she has wasted time. She circles the letter “I” on two occasions, to emphasise that she identifies herself as being at fault. She states that she has made mistakes, and she is uncertain/pessimistic about the future. MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER [MDD] MDD is diagnosed when there has been one or more major depressive episodes and no history of mania or hypomania.